X-ray inspection: analysis of the technology
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X-ray technology

The Dylog Hi Tech division manufactures and distributes state-of-the-art hardware and software systems for X-ray detection.

Designed with the aim of specifically and accurately identifying physical contaminants of any type and size, the systems can inspect (directly on the company production line) any type of packed or bulk product of the food and pharmaceutical industries.

An X-ray inspection machine comprises:

  • An emitting unit with high voltage generator connected to an X-ray tube (which may also be grouped as a single unit)
  • A linear detector
  • A processing unit (PC)

Electromagnetic radiation is generated inside the X-ray tube by accelerating (via a potential difference) a beam of electrons from a filament (cathode) to a target (anode).

The electrons from the cathode interact with the atoms of the anode (Tungsten) causing:

  • Braking: interaction between the electrons and the nuclear field -> production of x photons.
  • Collision: between the cathode electrons and the external anode electrons -> emission of x photons.

The area of the anode where X-rays are produced is called the focal spot.

Inside the machine, the product to inspect passes the beam of rays absorbing a part of the energy directed to the detector. The denser the product (chemical composition), the more energy that is often absorbed, and so less energy reaches the detector.

The detector acquires radiation line by line (like a fax or scanner).

Each detector photodiode (corresponding to a pixel) therefore has a certain level of grey.

The pixel lines are grouped by the processing system in order to produce an image of the product.

Based on this principle, the machine searches in real time for darker and well-marked out areas on the image, that correspond to foreign bodies with a density greater than that of the product, i.e. contaminants (glass, stone, ceramic, high-density plastic...) and automatically rejects them.

The following may be inspected:

  • Bulk products 
  • Products in soft packaging (bags, cardboard boxes, packs, tubes, etc.) 
  • Products in rigid packaging (glass, cans, trays, Tetra Brik cartons, etc.)


The following factors affect the performance of an X-ray machine (and therefore the identification of contaminants in the images acquired in real time):

  • Thickness
  • Homogeneity
  • Density

Dylog Hi Tech X-ray inspection systems guarantee:

  • the detection of potential contaminants
  • the identification of product defects, failure/fractures, anomalies, absence of substances, etc...
  • the presence of the product inside packaging
  • the reduction of rejects and false positives

A Hi Tech X-ray machine delivers the following benefits:

  • use of the best X-ray inspection/detection system available on the market worldwide
  • accurate controls
  • rapid testing
  • high level of reliability and performance
  • no alteration to the inspected product
  • simple, safe operation
  • prolonged use even in dusty, damp environments and with no change to analysis speed and precision
  • quick, easy and safe maintenance